农业发展历史文化墙

农业发展历史墙简介
发表时间:2013-11-27 阅读次数:620次

农业发展历史墙简介
Introduction of Agriculture History Wall

农业是人类文明的基础,农业的发展史也是人类文明发展史。我们祖先千百年来在生产实践中创造和积累了丰富的农业科学技术经验,促进了农业生产力的发展,为保障人类食物的供给做出了重要的贡献。
Agriculture is the basis of human civilization. The history of the development of agriculture is also the history of the development of human civilization. Our ancestors have accumulated rich experiences during their agricultural practices, invented technologies that advanced agricultural productivity, and made important contributions to secure the food supply for human beings.

社会经济发展重要瓶颈问题。为加强人们农业生物知识的了解,促进农业发展,在国家、上海市以及上海交通大学支持下,我们在此建设了该农业生物技术科普教育基地,重点介绍人类农业科学技术发展简史以及现代生物技术的发展的趋势。
In today’s modern societies, food security has become an important issue and bottleneck for social and economic development because of the growing world population, decreasing world arable land, and climate changes. To enhance the public understanding of agricultural biotechnology and to promote agricultural development, the Agricultural Biotechnology Science Education Base has been established here under the support of the Chinese Government, Shanghai Municipal Government, and Shanghai Jiao Tong University. The Base is focused on education of the history and development of agriculture in human history, as well as new trends in the development of agricultural science and technology.

公元前9000-7000(9000-7000 Bc)

在亚洲西南地区,种植小麦和大麦,绵羊和山羊被驯化。约公元前10000年欧洲驯化了狗。
In Southwestern Asia,wheat and barley were cultivated,and sheep and  goats were domesticated. Dogs had been domesticated in Europe by about 10,000 BC.

粮食安全
food security

主要指粮食生产和供应能力不能满足人们食用需求,对社会经济发展产生的风险,粮食安全可以用粮食安全风险指数(food security risk index)来表示。

风险分析和评测公司Maplecroft每年都会颁布粮食安全风险指数 (FSRI),该指数主要的依据联合国粮食和农业组织(FAO)颁布的粮食安全关键要素进行计算。它的计算使用12项指标,评测所有国家粮食供应的可用性,易取性和稳定性,以及人们的营养和健康状况。
The Food Security Risk Index (FSRI), released by risk analysis and mapping company Maplecroft, is based on the key elements of food security as laid out by the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). It is calculated using 12 indicators, measuring the availability, access and stability of food supplies across all countries, as well as the nutritional and health status of populations.

参考网站/ Reference Website:
http://www.robinsonlibrary.com/index.htm
http://www.icac.edu.cn/historytype.asp?id=105
http://maplecroft.com/about/news/food_security.html

    

农业的起源与传播
Origin and Spread of Agriculture

农业世界发展史/World Development Throughout History

绿色区域代表世界农业的几个起源点,箭头代表农业由源产地传递和发展的方向。
Agriculture originated independently in several regions around the world. In this map, the green areas are regions where agriculture originated. The arrows show directions that agriculture spreads from its origins.

农业起源于约12,000年前的东南部安纳托利亚、叙利亚和伊拉克北部。从那里,它在多个方向蔓延。欧洲是其中之一,沿地中海海岸线传播,海运船在其中起到了重要的作用。塞浦路斯在11750年前就有人居住,这些农民是从叙利亚或黎巴嫩北部,通过希腊或博斯普鲁斯海峡往北迁徙过来的。这比农业在达爱尔兰和斯堪的纳维亚半岛发展要早数千年。
Agriculture originated approximately 12,000 years ago in Southeast Anatolia and North of Syria and Iraq. From there it spread in multiple directions into other regions, and Europe was one of them. Agriculture spread along the coastline of the Mediterranean Sea, and boat transportation played important roles in it. Cyprus was inhibited by humans 11,750 years ago, they were farmers from Northern Syria or Lebanon, who migrated north through Greece or Bosphorus. It would take several thousand more years before agriculture was spread into Ireland and Scandinavia.

传播的第二个主要方向是中亚;第三个方向是伊朗,印度河流域,随后发展到印度次大陆最南端,然后到锡兰。
The second major direction of agriculture spreading was to Central Asia, and the third was to Iran and the Indus Valley. It further spread into the southernmost point of the Indian Subcontinent, and then to Ceylon.

第四个方向是通过长途跋涉发展到沙特阿拉伯。农民沿着西侧往南方迁移。在也门,他们发现了一个有利的农业气候。虽然对也门缺乏研究,但在五千年前,农业却是蓬勃发展的。无论是在旧为新约圣经中,也门也被称为古代的中东。
The fourth major direction was to Arabia. Farmers migrated south along the western side of Arabian Peninsula. In Yemen, they found climate there was very favorable for agriculture. Although ancient Yemen history is poorly researched, it is known that agriculture flourished there 5000 years ago. Yemen was known as the ancient Middle East in both the Old and the New Testament.

第五个方向是从亚洲的西南地区往埃及发展,沿北非地中海南缘的沿摩洛哥,甚至进一步扩展到加那利群岛。所有这些迁移遗留下的农业中心都含有从亚洲西南地区带来的植物和驯化的动物,如山羊和绵羊,他们是在狗驯化后的第一批被驯化的动物。在陶器发明了之前,他们随着第一迁徙的农民快速的发展。
The fifth direction was from Southwest Asia to Egypt through Morocco in North Africa, along the southern edge of the Mediterranean Sea. It was even spread further to the Canary Islands. All agricultural centers along the migration route had plants and domesticated animals that originated in Southwest Asia, such as the goat and sheep that were domesticated after the dog. Before pottery was invented, these plants and animals spread with the migrating farmers and developed quickly along the path.

公元前7000年以前(Before 7000 Bc)

粮食农业发展/Grain agriculture developed in Egypt.

中国是世界上农业发生最早的地区之一,也是主要的作物起源中心之一。许多重要的作物如稻、粟、黍、大豆、大麻、经济林木和茶、漆等,都是中国首先栽培的。中国在原始时代畜牧业已有发展,已驯养了猪、狗、羊、牛、马、鸡等六畜,它们的野生祖先在中国绝大多数可以找到。中国是最早养蚕缫丝的国家。
China is one of the earliest regions that Primitive Agriculture was originated. It is also one of the major origins for many important crops, including rice, millet, broomcorn millet, soybean, hemp, tea and lacquer trees . Livestock such as pig, dog, sheep, cattle, horse and chicken were also domesticated in China, and many of their wild ancestors  exist there. China was also the first country to domesticate silkworms and produce silk. 

传说伏羲发明农业。农业也就是种植业。
According to Chinese folk stories, the inventor of ancient Chinese agriculture (farming) was Fuxi. 

刀耕火种是原始农业的耕作技术。这种耕作技术在近代一些民族中仍然保留下来。
Slash-and-burn was the main agricultural technique during Primitive Agriculture. This technique is still practiced nowadays by some ethnic groups.  

南方地区如广东、广西、福建、江西等省新石器时代早期遗址一般发现于洞穴中,并往往叠压在旧石器时代晚期的文化层之上。距今九千年以上的广西桂林甑皮岩遗址,出土了磨光石斧、石锛和短杵形石杵等农业工具和迄今国内外最早的家猪遗骨,陶器亦已出现,可作为早期原始农业遗址的代表。在这以后的发展中,形成了河流两岸台地(岗地)和沿江沿海贝丘遗址这两种主要类型的农业文化,前者经济面貌与长江流域大体相似,后者农业虽已发生,但捕捞业在很长时期内是主要的生产部门。
Many of the ancient sites of early Neolithic Age in South China (such as in Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, and Jiangxi provinces) were discovered in caves and often on top of other archaeological layers of late Paleolithic Age. The Zengpiyan site in Guilin, Guangxi province is more than 9000 years old. Farming tools such as polished stone axes, stone adzes, and short stone pestles were unearthed from this site, as well as potteries and the earliest bone remains of domesticated pigs in the world. It is the representative of ancient sites during early Primitive Agriculture. There were two main types of ancient agricultural sites, the Riverside Platform sites and Shell Mound sites, in the late stages of Primitive Agriculture. The Riverside Platform sites were mainly along the Yangtze River region. In the Shell Mound sites, although farming was generally practiced, fishing was still the major food production method.

此外,在云南、贵州、西藏、台湾,都发现了距今三四千年以前的原始农业遗址。

 

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