发表时间:2013-11-27 阅读次数:743次

Introduction of Agriculture History Wall

Agriculture is the basis of human civilization. The history of the development of agriculture is also the history of the development of human civilization. Our ancestors have accumulated rich experiences during their agricultural practices, invented technologies that advanced agricultural productivity, and made important contributions to secure the food supply for human beings.

In today’s modern societies, food security has become an important issue and bottleneck for social and economic development because of the growing world population, decreasing world arable land, and climate changes. To enhance the public understanding of agricultural biotechnology and to promote agricultural development, the Agricultural Biotechnology Science Education Base has been established here under the support of the Chinese Government, Shanghai Municipal Government, and Shanghai Jiao Tong University. The Base is focused on education of the history and development of agriculture in human history, as well as new trends in the development of agricultural science and technology.

公元前9000-7000(9000-7000 Bc)

In Southwestern Asia,wheat and barley were cultivated,and sheep and  goats were domesticated. Dogs had been domesticated in Europe by about 10,000 BC.

food security

主要指粮食生产和供应能力不能满足人们食用需求,对社会经济发展产生的风险,粮食安全可以用粮食安全风险指数(food security risk index)来表示。

风险分析和评测公司Maplecroft每年都会颁布粮食安全风险指数 (FSRI),该指数主要的依据联合国粮食和农业组织(FAO)颁布的粮食安全关键要素进行计算。它的计算使用12项指标,评测所有国家粮食供应的可用性,易取性和稳定性,以及人们的营养和健康状况。
The Food Security Risk Index (FSRI), released by risk analysis and mapping company Maplecroft, is based on the key elements of food security as laid out by the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). It is calculated using 12 indicators, measuring the availability, access and stability of food supplies across all countries, as well as the nutritional and health status of populations.

参考网站/ Reference Website:


Origin and Spread of Agriculture

农业世界发展史/World Development Throughout History

Agriculture originated independently in several regions around the world. In this map, the green areas are regions where agriculture originated. The arrows show directions that agriculture spreads from its origins.

Agriculture originated approximately 12,000 years ago in Southeast Anatolia and North of Syria and Iraq. From there it spread in multiple directions into other regions, and Europe was one of them. Agriculture spread along the coastline of the Mediterranean Sea, and boat transportation played important roles in it. Cyprus was inhibited by humans 11,750 years ago, they were farmers from Northern Syria or Lebanon, who migrated north through Greece or Bosphorus. It would take several thousand more years before agriculture was spread into Ireland and Scandinavia.

The second major direction of agriculture spreading was to Central Asia, and the third was to Iran and the Indus Valley. It further spread into the southernmost point of the Indian Subcontinent, and then to Ceylon.

The fourth major direction was to Arabia. Farmers migrated south along the western side of Arabian Peninsula. In Yemen, they found climate there was very favorable for agriculture. Although ancient Yemen history is poorly researched, it is known that agriculture flourished there 5000 years ago. Yemen was known as the ancient Middle East in both the Old and the New Testament.

The fifth direction was from Southwest Asia to Egypt through Morocco in North Africa, along the southern edge of the Mediterranean Sea. It was even spread further to the Canary Islands. All agricultural centers along the migration route had plants and domesticated animals that originated in Southwest Asia, such as the goat and sheep that were domesticated after the dog. Before pottery was invented, these plants and animals spread with the migrating farmers and developed quickly along the path.

公元前7000年以前(Before 7000 Bc)

粮食农业发展/Grain agriculture developed in Egypt.

China is one of the earliest regions that Primitive Agriculture was originated. It is also one of the major origins for many important crops, including rice, millet, broomcorn millet, soybean, hemp, tea and lacquer trees . Livestock such as pig, dog, sheep, cattle, horse and chicken were also domesticated in China, and many of their wild ancestors  exist there. China was also the first country to domesticate silkworms and produce silk. 

According to Chinese folk stories, the inventor of ancient Chinese agriculture (farming) was Fuxi. 

Slash-and-burn was the main agricultural technique during Primitive Agriculture. This technique is still practiced nowadays by some ethnic groups.  

Many of the ancient sites of early Neolithic Age in South China (such as in Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, and Jiangxi provinces) were discovered in caves and often on top of other archaeological layers of late Paleolithic Age. The Zengpiyan site in Guilin, Guangxi province is more than 9000 years old. Farming tools such as polished stone axes, stone adzes, and short stone pestles were unearthed from this site, as well as potteries and the earliest bone remains of domesticated pigs in the world. It is the representative of ancient sites during early Primitive Agriculture. There were two main types of ancient agricultural sites, the Riverside Platform sites and Shell Mound sites, in the late stages of Primitive Agriculture. The Riverside Platform sites were mainly along the Yangtze River region. In the Shell Mound sites, although farming was generally practiced, fishing was still the major food production method.



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