农业发展历史文化墙

原始农业时期
发表时间:2013-11-27 阅读次数:480次

原始农业时期

在人类漫长的历史过程中,农业的出现和发展大约有10000年历史。人类经过长期的采集、渔猎生活,逐步熟悉了植物和动物的生活习性,在旧石器时代晚期和新石器时代即约在公元前8000年左右开始驯养繁殖动物和种植谷物,人类进入了原始农业阶段。从原始农业的发展过程可以看出,农业的起源不限于一时一地。西亚、北非、中国、印度及中美洲等地古老文明的出现,最初都同农业的发生直接有关。在原始农业阶段的初期,采集及渔猎活动仍占较大的比重,但随着劳动工具和生产技术的进步,采集及渔猎业所占比重日趋下降,原始种植业和畜牧业所占比重逐渐上升。
It has been nearly 10000 years since the beginning of agriculture in the history of humanity.  After collecting, hunting and fishing for food for a long time, people became more and more familiar with the plants and animals around them, and started plant cultivation and animal domestication in the late Paleolithic and early Neolithic ages around 8000 BC, which was the beginning of Primitive Agriculture. Primitive Agriculture originated in multiple locations, and ancient civilizations in West Asia, North Africa, China, India and Central America have emerged along with the beginning of Primitive Agriculture. In the earlier stages, collecting, hunting and fishing were still the major means of obtaining food, but with the development of farming tools and techniques, portions of food supply from cultivation and animal husbandry had steadily increased.

随着世界人口的不断增长,原始农业缓慢地向前发展。据粗略估计,新石器时代的人口大约已经有5000万。为满足世界不断增长的人口对食物的需求,以及由于家畜驯养导致饲料的不足,原始农业在地域上不断拓展,生产技术也有所进步。如西亚地区在公元前6000~5000年已经出现了简陋的灌溉农业,公元前5000年在埃及尼罗河流域产生了灌溉农业,公元前2500年印度已经普遍种植稻麦。
Primitive Agriculture developed gradually with the growing of world population. In Neolithic Age, world population has reached 50 million. The demand for more food production by both humans and feeding of domesticated animals drove the expansion of Primitive Agriculture into many other geographic regions. Primitive irrigation systems appeared in West Asia from 6000 to 5000 BC, and in River Nile area of ancient Egypt in 5000 BC. By 2500 BC, rice and wheat have been widely planted in India.

原始农业经历了刀耕和锄耕两个时期,历时达六七千年之久。它的突出成就就是对野生动植物的驯化,今天常见的主要作物和家畜大多在4000年以前就已基本完成驯化过程。
Primitive Agriculture lasted 6000 to 7000 years. It went through two periods: Knife Cultivation and Hoe Cultivation. The most significant achievement of Primitive agriculture was the domestication of many wild plants and animals. Most of the crops and livestock that we see today had been domesticated by 4000 BC.

公元前7000-3000 (7000-3000 Bc)

驯化的作物包括大豆,玉米(玉米),木薯,南瓜,土豆,和辣椒。
Agriculture developed in parts of the Americas. Domesticated crops included beans,corn(maize), cassavas, squashes, potatoes, and peppers.

谷子最早是在中国驯化种植的,其野生型是狗尾草,又称莠绿、毛莠、狐尾草等。从磁山、裴李岗等出土遗址可以确认,谷子又称粟,其果实去皮后称为小米。谷子最晚在8 000年前就已在中国的河北、河南等地普遍种植。中国是世界上唯一最早从种植粟开始发展起来的农业国。然后传播到朝鲜、日本、东南亚等地。

Wild rice is actually the seed from a grass that grows in California as well as regions of the Northern part of the United States. Wild rice is dark brown/black in color and when cooked produce a chewy, nutty grain. Read more from GourmetSleuth.com:

Http://www.gourmetsleuth.com/Dictionary/W/Wild-rice-5767.aspx#ixzz246N2HZre

Wild Rice Seed Head

棉花原产于印度的印度河河谷。早在公元前3000多年前,在印度河谷及巴基斯坦的古墓中,就发现棉织品及棉线的遗迹,在公元前3500年前印度的《佛陀经典圣诗》和公元前2800年前印度的佛经中,就有关于织布和棉花的文字记载。公元前1500年棉花才在美索不达米亚平原引种。

Cotton originated in the Indus Valley of India. As early as 3000 BC, in the Indus Valley and some Pakistan ancient tombs, relics of cotton fabrics and cotton had been found. Weaving and cotton had been documented in India’s Hindu Rig-Verda Hymn in 3000 BC, as well as in other Buddhist scriptures in 2800 BC. By 1500 BC, cotton was introduced and cultivated in the Mesopotamian plains.

Wild cotton,Gossypium thurberi, in Arizona.

野生棉花Gossypium thurberi, 美国亚利桑那.
Wild cotton,Gossypium thurberi, in Arizona.

Wild cotton--Myrull (cotton grass) is better known as 'bog cotton' in Norway. These little fellas grow in acidic bogs in Arctic tundra regions-areas where the ground never fully defrosts from the Winter.

小麦最早起源于西亚和中国。不少学者认为,西亚的伊拉克、叙利亚、土耳其、伊朗等同是野生小麦的原产地,并在公元前7000年开始种植。中国学者李潘认为,普通小麦的原产地是在中国的黄河流域。中国是普通小麦的重要原产地和最大的变异中心之一。它在辽阔中国土地上不同的自然条件下,经过人工选择和培育,形成不同的生态变异型。包括具有抗旱和长日照性特点的黄土高原冬小麦型,蒙古高原耐冷凉、干旱的小麦型,华东、华南的喜温、春性和短日照性小麦型,西南云贵高原耐温暖多湿的小麦型,西北耐碱、耐旱的小麦型,青藏高原长日照性、特殊光温小麦型。因此,中国与西亚的两河流域是普通小麦的两个不同起源。至今在云南、西藏一带仍可常见中国特有的野生小麦。

Wheat originated in West Asia and China. Many scholars think that the West Asian countries including Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and Iran were the origins of wild wheat, which was cultivated from 7000 BC. Chinese scholar Li Pan believes that China's Yellow River Basin was the origin of common wheat. China has a large population of different wheat species due to the many different natural conditions in its vast territory. Through artificial selection and breeding, many wheat varieties have been selected, including drought-tolerant and long-day winter wheat in the Loess Plateau, cold and drought tolerant wheat in Mongolian Plateau, thermophilic and short-day spring wheat in East and South China, heat and humidity tolerant wheat in southwest Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, alkali and drought tolerant wheat in Northwest China, Long-day and extreme light/temperature acclimated wheat in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Therefore, China and West Asia are two different origins of common wheat. Today in Yunnan and Xizang provinces, there are still many wild wheat varieties that can only be found in China.

       

Aegilops neglecta Req. ex Bertol.
- Neglected goatgrass, neglected wild-wheat.       Aegilops (wheat wild ancestor)

公元前6500年(6500 BC)

希腊驯化了牛/Cattle were domesticated in Greece.

玉米种植起源于中美洲。早在哥伦布把玉米传入欧洲的3 000年,墨西哥人和印加人就以玉米为主食。当公元前2000~前1500年玉米开始被驯化种植时,家种的玉米棒才4.3厘米长。现保存在墨西哥全国农牧林业研究所的墨西哥本地玉米品种有8 200种。玉米从墨西哥传入美国俄亥俄河口附近的匹兹堡(距离约2 000英里),大约用了2 250年(公元前1500~公元前750年)。

Corn cultivation originated in Central America. 3000 years before Columbus brought corns to Europe, corn has been the staple food for Mexicans and Incas. When corn was domesticated and cultivated from 2000 to 1500 BC, the cobs of home-grown corns were only 4.3 cm long. Nowadays 8200 local corn varieties are preserved at Mexico's National Institute of Forestry, Agriculture, and Livestock. It took about 2250 years before corns were introduced from Mexico to the mouth of the Ohio River near Pittsburgh in US during 1500 to 750 BC (travelling a distance of about 2,000 miles).

    

美国纽约大学生物学家Michael Purugganan及其同事在PNAS发表文章称,通过大量的基因重测序工作,他们将水稻的进化过程追溯至数千年以前,最终发现这一作物最初起源于中国。这些科学家来自不同的大学,他们发现驯化水稻最早约在9000年前出现在中国的长江流域。除了开展进化历史重新评估、基因碎片重测序工作外,研究人员还利用水稻基因“分子钟”来估计水稻的进化时间。他们指出,水稻可能起源于8200年前,大约在3900年前分化为粳稻和籼稻两个分支,这与之前的考古研究结果是一致的。
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.2011 May 17; 108(20):8351-8356.
According to a recent study published on PNAS, Dr. Michael Purugganan and his colleagues at New York University have found that the origin of rice domestication was in ancient China several thousand years ago.  The research team consisted of scientists from several universities. They re-sequenced gene fragments of rice genome and re-evaluated the history and timeline of rice evolution by investigating rice molecular clock genes. Their discovery indicated that the earliest domesticated rice in the world emerged 9000 years ago in the Yangtze Valley of China.  About 3900 years ago, two subspecies of rice, Indica and Japonia, evolved from the same ancestor.  This conclusion is consistent with previous archaeological discoveries.

公元前6000年(6000 BC)

黄河流域是中国北方的早期农耕地区之一。小米是主要农作物。公元前5000年,水稻在亚洲很多都有栽培。
The Huang (Yellow) River Valley was an area of early farming in northern China. Millet was a staple crops there. Was cultivated throughout much of Asia by 5000 B.C.

美国纽约大学生物学家Michael Purugganan及其同事在PNAS发表文章称,通过大量的基因重测序工作,他们将水稻的进化过程追溯至数千年以前,最终发现这一作物最初起源于中国。这些科学家来自不同的大学,他们发现驯化水稻最早约在9000年前出现在中国的长江流域。除了开展进化历史重新评估、基因碎片重测序工作外,研究人员还利用水稻基因“分子钟”来估计水稻的进化时间。他们指出,水稻可能起源于8200年前,大约在3900年前分化为粳稻和籼稻两个分支,这与之前的考古研究结果是一致的。
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.2011 May 17; 108(20):8351-8356.
According to a recent study published on PNAS, Dr. Michael Purugganan and his colleagues at New York University have found that the origin of rice domestication was in ancient China several thousand years ago.  The research team consisted of scientists from several universities. They re-sequenced gene fragments of rice genome and re-evaluated the history and timeline of rice evolution by investigating rice molecular clock genes. Their discovery indicated that the earliest domesticated rice in the world emerged 9000 years ago in the Yangtze Valley of China.  About 3900 years ago, two subspecies of rice, Indica and Japonia, evolved from the same ancestor.  This conclusion is consistent with previous archaeological discoveries.

 

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