农业发展历史文化墙

黄帝内经
发表时间:2013-11-27 阅读次数:403次

《黄帝内经》(Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor)简称《内经》,是我国现存医书中最早的典籍之一。成书于战国至秦汉时期(公元前770年-221年),是我国劳动人民长期与疾病做斗争的经验总结。《黄帝内经》共十八卷,《素问》、《灵枢》各有九卷、八十一篇。内容包括摄生、阴阳、脏象、经络和论治之道。其成书年代一向有争议,大约是战国至秦汉的作品。  
Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor is one of the earliest medical books in China. It was written in the period of Warring States to Qin-Han Dynasty (770 BC -221 years), summarizing the experiences of disease fighting by ordinary working people in the past. It consists of 18 volumes, including "Su Wen” and “Ling Shu”, each with nine volumes and eighty-one chapters. The contents include regimens, yin and yang, viscera manifestation, meridians and theories of treatment.

 


黄帝内经整理先人积累的丰富的医疗经验,升华为理性认识,形成系统的医学理论,并且进一步驾御医疗实践,建立了中医学临床规范,成为中国传统科学中探讨生命规律及其医学应用的系统学问。它的问世,开创了中医学独特的理论体系,标志着祖国医学由单纯积累经验的阶段发展到了系统的理论总结阶段。
By documenting the accumulated rich medical experiences of the ancestors, organizing them into rational knowledge, providing systematic medical theories, describing standards of clinical practice of Chinese Medicine, Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor established the systematic science of exploring the law of life and its applications in medicine. Its advent created a unique theoretical system of Chinese medicine, and marked the transition from stage of simple experience accumulation to establishing systematic medical theory in the history Chinese Medicine.

 

凤鸟形象牙匕状器

 

河姆渡人木作工艺十分突出,除木耜、小铲、杵、矛、桨、槌、纺轮、木刀等工具外,还发现了不少安装骨耜、石斧、石锛等工具的把柄。

Phoenix bird-shaped dagger made with elephant tusk

The Hemudu people had very advanced wood crafting techniques. In addition to tools such as wooden plows, small shovels, pestles, spears, paddles, hammers, spinning wheels, and wooden knives, a lot of  handles for tools such as bone plows, stone axes and stone adzes were also unearthed.

 

河姆渡遗址出土陶器

 

陶器主要是夹炭黑陶和夹砂红陶、红灰陶。除素面陶外,盛行在釜类腹底交错拍印绳纹,陶器的宽边口沿上常刻划平行条纹、波浪、圆圈、叶形、谷穗状等几何图样,偶见白地深褐色纹的彩陶。以平底器和圜底器为大宗。

Pottery from Hemudu Site

The main pottery types were black carbon pottery, red sandy pottery, red and grey pottery. Other than plain surfaced pottery, there are cauldrons with cross lines incised at the bottom, shapes such as horizontal lines, wavy lines, circles, leaf and rice panicles incised on the rims.  There is occasional color pottery with dark brown line patterns on white background. The majority of them had flat and round bottoms.

 

 

 

春雨惊春清谷天,夏满芒夏暑相连。
秋处露秋寒霜降,冬雪雪冬小大寒。

A poem describing the 24 solar terms in Chinese lunar calendar. Farmers use these solar terms to plan farming activities in different seasons.

 

公元前3000年/ 3000 BC

 

在印度水牛被驯化,并成为一个重要的役畜。
The water buffalo was domesticated in India and
became an important draft animal.

水牛的驯化
Domestication of water buffalo

 

公元前3500年/By 3500 BC

 

骆驼在南美洲被驯化。这些动物被用作负重的野兽,也是安第斯地区的羊毛和肉类的来源。
Llamas were domesticated in South America. The animals were used as beasts of burden
and as sources of wool and meat in some Andean areas.

骆驼的驯化
Domestication of the llamas

 

狗的驯化
Domestication of the dog

伊朗11000多年前Iran, 11,000 years ago
美洲14000~9000年America, 14000 to 9000 years
英国约克夏7500年前British Yorkshire, 7500 years ago
丹麦6800年前Denmark, 6800 years ago
中国6000年前进行。 China, 6000 years ag

猪的驯化
Domestication of the pig

 

中国最早Earliest in China
其次是西亚地区(距今年6 000年)Next in West Asia (6000 years ago)
到公元前2000年,养猪已传播到整个西亚及印度和东南亚各国
By 2000 BC, pig farming has spread to the whole West Asia region, India and Southeast Asian countries.
羊的驯化
Domestication of the sheep
以西亚地区最早,巴勒斯坦的杰里科地区,公元前8500年就已驯养山羊;
Earliest in West Asia. In 8500 BC, goats had been domesticated in the Jericho region of Palestine.
伊朗北部的里海没岸地区公元前6000年也已开始驯养羊。
In 6000 BC,sheep has been domesticated in the shore regions of Caspian Sea in northern Iran.
到公元前3000年前后,羊已遍及西亚地区
By 3000 BC, sheep farming had been all over the West Asia area.
绵羊的驯化
Domestication of the sheep
最早亦出现在西亚地区。
Also earliest in West Asia
牛的驯化
Domestication of the cattle
大约在距今5 000~6 000年在西南亚的美索不达米亚地区已开始驯养
Cattle was domesticated in the Mesopotamia region in South West Asia 5000 to 6000 years ago.
而水牛则是在印度或美索不达米亚地区的南部被驯化的。
The buffalo was domesticated in India or south of Mesopotamia
马的驯化
Domestication of the Horse
公元前3000年中亚草原地区已驯养马并用作运输工具。
In 3000 BC, horse has been domesticated and used as a means of transportation in the steppe area of Central Asia.
公元前2000年经土耳其和伊朗传入中东地区。In 2000 BC, horse was introduced into Middle East via Turkey and Iran
希腊在公元前2000年就用马挽车In 2000 BC, horse pulled carts had appeared in Greece
埃及在公元前1600年就有有关马的最早驯养记录。The earliest documentation of horse domestication in Egypt was in 1600 BC
驴的驯化
Domestication of the donkey
是努比亚变种,后来其它野生驴也相继被驯化。
Donkey was domesticated from wild Nubian ass, and later other wild donkeys have also been domesticated
大约在公元前4000年末期,驴经埃及被引进整个近东地区。
鸡的驯化
Domestication of the chicken
以亚洲最早。中国早在公元前1400年就将野鸡驯化为家鸡
Earliest in China. As early as 1400 BC, chicken had been domesticated from pheasants in China
印度在公元前1200年也已驯养家鸡。By 1200 BC, chicken was also domesticated in India
家鹅的驯化
Domestication of the goose
公元前2300年由埃及人将栖息于尼罗河流域的埃及雁驯化而成。
Goose was domesticated by Egyptians in 2300 BC from the wild Egyptian goose inhabited in the Nile Basin
接着,到公元前2000年末期,灰鹅和中国鹅也相继被驯化。
Next, in late 2000 BC, Grey Goose and Chinese Goose were also domesticated
火鸡的驯化
Domestication of the turkey
公元前5000年在墨西哥的瓦哈卡谷地首先被驯化成家禽的。
Turkey was first domesticated in 5000 BC in Mexico's Oaxaca Valley
家鸽的驯化
Domestication of Pigeon
最早可能是在阿拉伯地区驯化的。The earliest domestication of Pigeon was likely in in the Arab region
早在公元前3100年,在近东地区就出现了鸽子的雕像。As early as 3100 BC, Pigeon sculptures had appeared in Near East
埃及大约是在公元前2600年开始养鸽的。Pigeon husbandry started in Egypt in 2600 BC

大豆起源于中国,大约在公元前2000年以前,后经中国华北引至朝鲜、日本。豌豆由原产于西亚一带的野豌豆驯化而成。蚕豆由原产于西亚、北非的野蚕豆驯化而成,在公元前3000年已在近东被栽培。从公元前4000年在巴勒斯坦沉积层内发现现在南欧、西亚和中亚种植较多的鹰嘴豆判断,它原产于中东地区。

Soybean originated in China around 2000 BC and was later introduced to Korea and Japan through Northern China. Pea was domesticated from vetch grown in West Asia. Broad bean was domesticated in West Asia and North Africa from its wild ancestor, and cultivated in Near East in 3000 BC. The chickpea, which is widely planted in South Europe, West and Central Asia, originated in Middle East, judging from the discovery of chickpea relics in geological sedimentary layers in Palestine formed in 4000 BC.
 

Wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.)野生大豆

Http://www.gene.affrc.go.jp/databases-plant_images_detail_en.php?plno=5420170005

Copyright © 2013 上海交大生物转基科普教育基地
地址:上海市闵行区剑川路501号 邮编:200240 电话:021-34204876/34207174 联系人:刘丹阳

技术支持:维程互联

您是第 dreamweaver widget位访客