农业发展历史文化墙

传统农业时期
发表时间:2013-11-27 阅读次数:2337次

传统农业时期(从公元前500年左右至19世纪中叶)
Traditional Agriculture period (from about 500 BC to the mid-19th century)

传统农业的特征是使用铁、木农具,利用人力、畜力、水力、风力和自然肥料,凭借火主要凭借直接经验从事生产活动的农业。这一时期农业主要是在生产过程中通过积累经验的方式来传承应用并有所发展的。由原始农业进入传统农业的过程,在西方是从奴隶制的希腊、罗马开始的,在中国则发端于春秋战国(公元前770年-公元前221年)从奴隶社会过渡到封建社会的时候。
Traditional Agriculture is characterized by the emergence of iron and wood agricultural tools, utilization of manual, animal, hydro and wind powers, application of natural fertilizers and fire, guidance by practical experience in agricultural activities. The development of Agriculture in this period was mainly through accumulation of experience. The transition from Primitive Agriculture into Traditional Agriculture started in the West in slavery Greece and Rome, and in China in the Warring States period (770 BC - 221 BC) during the transition from the slave society to a feudal society.
据有关资料,在原始农业阶段的公元前5000左右,世界人口估计为2000万人,到公元元年增至2.3亿,公元1000年为2.75亿,公元1500年为4.46亿,公元1800年为9.02亿。
According to documentation, in Primitive Agriculture stage before 5000 BC, the world's population was estimated to be 20 million. The number increased to 230 million in 1 AD, 275 million in 1000 AD, 446 million in 1500 AD and 9.02 billion in 1800 AD.
为解决人口增长对食物的需求,在亚洲、欧洲、非洲和中美洲都开展了大规模的土地开垦。例如,中国从战国中期起,实行“奖励耕战”的政策,兴建水利工程,开垦荒地,发展灌溉。秦及西汉时期(公元前221~公元220年),中国农耕以关中、中原地区为中心,一方面向西北方向扩展(如开垦河西走廊地区),另一方面在长江中下游广大沼泽地带,通过修建大小排水工程,扩大土地垦殖。
To meet the increased food demand by the growing world population, large scale land cultivations were carried out in Asia, Europe, Africa and Central America. Starting in the middle of the Warring States period, China has implemented the policy of "Award for agriculture and military service", constructed water conservancy projects, cultivated wasteland and built irrigation systems. In Qin and West Han Dynasty (221 BC to 220 AD), while the center of agriculture was in the Guanzhong and Central Plains, it started to extend northwest into the Hexi Corridor region. In large regions along the middle and lower Yangtze River, farming lands were expanded through construction of variously sized drainage projects.

李时珍(1518年?1593年),字东璧,时人谓之李东壁。号濒湖,晚年自号濒湖山人,湖北蕲州(今湖北省黄冈市蕲春县蕲州镇)人,汉族,生于明武宗正德十三年(公元1518年),卒于神宗万历二十二年(公元1593年)。中国古代伟大的医学家、药物学家,李时珍曾参考历代有关医药及其学术书籍八百余种,结合自身经验和调查研究,历时二十七年编成《本草纲目》一书,是我国古代药物学的总结性巨著.

Shizhen Li (1518 -1593), also known as Dongbi Li, was born in Qizhou, Hubei province (now Huanggang, Hubei Province) in 1518, and passed away in 1593. Li was a great doctor and medical scientist. He wrote the book "Compendium of Materia Medica" after reading more than 800 ancient Chinese medical books and summarized his own investigation and experiences in medical practice.  It took him 27 years to compile the book, which became a masterpiece of ancient Chinese pharmacology.
 

公元800年/AD 800

露地耕作制广泛应用于西欧。土地被划分成两个或三个大的区域,庄稼在每块田地轮作,中间由一个不耕种的土地分开。
The open-field system of planting was common in western Europe. Village land was divided into two or three large fields, and crops were rotated in each field yearly, with one field left unplanted.

农业露地耕作制
open-field system of farming

统农业的典型。
Oriental Traditional Agriculture refers to Traditional Agriculture in countries in East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, West Asia and North Africa. Overall, the farming systems and level of concentrated agriculture in these countries  were more advanced than in the West. Among them, China was the model for Oriental Traditional Agriculture.
中国从春秋战国(公元前770~前222年)起,实行铁犁牛耕进入传统农业阶段后,结束了撂荒制,代之以提高单位面积产量、充分利用土地的精耕细作制。春秋晚期,大多是锄、镰这类的小型农具,战国中期后,铁制农具的种类增加,分布地区扩大。
Since the Warring States period in China (770 BC to 222 AD), China entered the Traditional Agriculture stage with the implementation of cattle–drawn plows. The old Shifting Cultivation practice was replaced by Intensive and Meticulous Farming practice which was intended to improve the yield per unit of land and make full use of the farmland. Previously in late Spring-and-Autumn period, farming tools were mostly small ones such as hoes and sickles. After middle Warring States period, many types of ion farming tools were used and spread to many geographical regions.
为了便于农田耕翻起垄,农具也不断改进,汉代发明了铁制犁具。在耕作制度方面,秦汉时期,全国范围内普遍实行连作制(即在同一块土地上连年种植农作物),汉代出现了冬小麦与其它作物轮作倒茬。魏晋南北朝时,在采用绿肥养地,绿肥、豆科作物和其它作物轮作、间作、套种方面,形成了一整套养地与用地相结合的轮作体系,使农作物的单产和土地利用率得到了较大的提高。隋、唐、宋、元时期,江南形成了以稻麦(绿肥或油菜)轮作为主体的耕作制度,并出现了双季稻和三季稻。明清时代,轮作、间套作、多熟种植在全国范围内得到进一步发展。
Farming tools continued to improve in order to facilitate plowing and ridging of farmland. Steel plow was invented in Han Dynasty. In Qin and Han dynasties, Continuous Cropping system (growing crops on the same piece of land year after year) was implemented nationwide. Crop rotation of winter wheat with other crops emerged in Han Dynasty. During Jin, Southern-and-Northern Dynasties, crop yields and land utilization were greatly improved by the using of green manure, crop rotation of green manure, leguminous and other crops, intercropping and interplanting systems to enrich the farmland. In Sui, Tang, Song and Yuan Dynasties, crop rotation of rice and wheat (intercropping with green manure plant or canola) became the main farming system, and double cropping and triple cropping rice also emerged. In Ming and Qing Dynasties, crop rotation, intercropping and multiple cropping systems were further developed nationwide.

在世界农业起源地的西亚、北非地区,由于气候干燥炎热,为战胜干旱对农业的危害,发展了各种形式的灌溉农业,如引河水进行自流灌溉,引地下水灌溉,修建水井或坎儿井等发展井灌。特别是在3 000年前的埃及,引尼罗河水进行淤灌,以此提高耕作土壤肥力。古埃及人也发明了耕犁,创立了作物轮作制。由于施肥较少,休闲和轮作是当时保持地力的主要方法。
Various agricultural irrigation systems were developed to fight threaten of drought on agriculture in West Asia and North Africa, one of the origins of world agriculture that have dry and hot climate. These included river water irrigation by gravity, Karez irrigation using underground water, and well irrigation by construction of wells. 3,000 years ago In Egypt, warping irrigation using water from River Nile was utilized to enrich farm soils. The ancient Egyptians also invented plow, adopted crop rotation system. Because of the lack of fertilization, fallow in rotation and crop rotation were the main ways to maintain soil fertility.
在东方,由于农业与家庭手工业的紧密结合,形成了全封闭的自给自足的分散的个体经济,它们同外界交往很少,因而变革和进步十分缓慢,致使传统农业生产方式较西方保持的时间要长得多。
In the East, because agriculture and cottage industries were closely integrated to form a fully enclosed but scattered self-sufficient individual economy, the contacts with outside world were rare, and this resulted in very slow progress of agriculture. This was the reason that Traditional Agriculture lasted much longer in the East than in the West.

公元1400-1500年/1400s-1500s

探险家将来自亚洲、美洲的植物和农业产品引入欧洲。并将咖啡,茶,靛蓝(槐蓝属植物)带回亚洲。土豆,西红柿,玉米(玉米)和豆类是从美洲引进的植物。这些植物为欧洲人们提供了更丰富的食品。
Explorers introduced plants and agricultural products from Asia and the Americas into Europe.?Coffee, tea, and indigo were carried back from Asia. Potatoes, tomatoes, corn (maize), and beans were among the plants brought from the Americas. Some of these plants expanded people's diets in parts of Europe.

《本草纲目》(Compendium of Materia Medica)是明朝伟大的医药学家李时珍(1518-1593年)以毕生精力,亲历实践,广收博采,实地考察,对本草学进行了全面的整理总结,历时27年编成,30余年心血的结晶。全书52 卷,约200万言,全书共有190多万字,记载了1892种药物(新增374种),分成60类。其中374种是李时珍新增加的药物。收药1892种,绘图1100多幅,并附有11000多个药方。是集我国16世纪以前药学成就之大成,在训诂、语言文字、历史、地理、植物、动物、矿物、冶金等方面也有突出成就。本书十七世纪末即传播,先后多种文字的译本,对世界自然科学也有举世公认的卓越贡献。它是几千年来祖国药物学的总结。这本药典,不论从它严密的科学分类,或是从它包含药物的数目之多和流畅生动的文笔来看,都远远超过古代任何一部本草著作。

"Compendium of Materia Medica" was the crystallization of more than 30 years of diligent and intelligent work of Shizhen Li. He devoted his whole life in medical practice, absorbed knowledge from all sources, made numerous field trips, carried out a full range of herbalism researches, and spent 27 years in writing to finally compile this book. It has over 190 million words, 200 million sentences and 52 Volumes. The book recorded 1892 medicines that were divided into 60 categories. 374 of them were new medicines discovered by Li. There were more than 1,100 illustrations and over 11,000 prescriptions in the book. It’s the culmination of ancient Chinese medical achievements before 16th centuries. Besides its medical contents, the book also has great achievements in exegesis, linguistics, history, geography, botany, animal science, mining, metallurgy and other areas. The book was introduced into many countries at the end of 17th century, translated into many languages, and acknowledged worldwide for its contribution to the study of natural science. It is a summary of thousands years of ancient Chinese medicine development. It surpassed any other ancient Chinese medicine books with its scientific medicine classification, documentation of large numbers of medicines, and smooth vivid writing.

 

 

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