农业发展历史文化墙

公元1700年代早期
发表时间:2013-11-27 阅读次数:2340次

由于传统农业开始使用铁犁牛耕,便于深耕细作,农业生产出现了一次飞跃。在土地利用方式上,欧洲国家为了便于农牧结合和恢复地力,实行休闲、轮作中包括放牧地的二圃制和三圃制;在中国则是在废除撂荒制以后走上了土地连种制的道路,实行精耕细作,种植业和养畜业进一步分离。古代东西方农业虽有这些不同点,但在整个国民经济中,农业都是最主要的经济部门。18世纪中期,随着资本主义在西方的兴起,传统农业开始向现代农业过渡;而东方国家,包括日本在内,却是在较晚的时候才开始这一转变。
The transition from Primitive Agriculture to Traditional Agriculture was a big leap in agricultural production with the utilization of cattle-drawn plows that brought deep plowing and intensive cultivation. For farmland management, the European countries implemented fallow rotation and crop rotation, including two-field and three-field system that contained gazing fields, to facilitate the combination of agriculture and animal husbandry and to restore land fertility. In China, after the abolition of shifting cultivation, deep plowing and intensive cultivation were applied, and agriculture and animal husbandry were further separated. Despite the different characteristics of Eastern and Western agriculture, agriculture was the most important sector of national economy in both regions. In mid-18th century, with the rise of capitalism in the West, traditional agriculture gradually changed into modern agriculture, but in Eastern countries, including Japan, this transition was started at a later time compared to the West.

汉画拓片-荷塘渔猎拓片

公元1700年代早期/Early 1700s

在欧洲欧洲的低地国家和英国逐渐形成了新的作物轮作方法,改善以前的系统。查尔斯?汤森在英国诺福克郡,普及了四露地耕作制系统。他发现,白萝卜可与小麦,大麦,苜蓿和黑麦草轮作,可使土壤更肥沃和增加产量。
New crop rotation methods evolved in Europe's Low Countries and in England, improving previous systems.Charles Townshend popularized a four-field system in Norfolk County, England. He found that turnips could be rotated with wheat, barley, clover, and ryegrass to make soil more fertile and increase yields.

Evolution of crop rotation methods in Europe

山东省滕县龙阳店出土的拾粪画像石
(中国农业博物馆,汉代农业画像砖石,中国农业出版社,1996年,37页)

最初人们懂得肥料的作用,可能是发现动物粪便遗落之处,庄稼长得特别好,于是便选择动物出没较多(相应地也就是粪便较多)的地方来开辟农田。
The initial realization of the role of fertilizers by human being might come from the discovery that crops grew better if they are planted in fields with left behind animal droppings. So people started to cultivate fields in areas that animals frequented more (so there were more animal stools in these fields).

1837年

更尖锐、更有效。重潮湿的土壤不再粘住钢犁。
In the United States,John Deere Patented the steel plow. It was stronger, sharper, and more efficient than wooden or iron plows. Heavy damp soil did not stick to it as readily.

发明钢犁
Invention of steel plow

1834年

在美国,赛勒斯麦考密克第一个申请获得了应用收割机(谷物收获机)的专利。
In the United States, the first practical reaper, or grain harvesting machine, was patented by Cyrus McCormick.

发明谷物收获机Invention of reaper

1793年

在美国,惠特尼发明轧棉机,这台机器从种子分离纤维的速度远远超过人们的手工劳作。
In the United States, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, a machine that separated fiber from seed much more quickly than people could do it by hand.

发明轧棉机
Invention of cotton gin

 

 

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