农业发展历史文化墙

分子农业的发展
发表时间:2013-11-28 阅读次数:2130次

分子农业的发展

1986. The first field trials of genetically engineered tobacco plants that resistant to herbicides occurred in France and the USA.
1986年,世界首例转基因植物(抗除草剂烟草)的田间试验在法国和美国进行。
1992. China was the first country to commercialize transgenic plants, introducing a virus-resistant tobacco.
1992年,中国引进抗抗烟草花叶病毒和黄瓜花叶病毒的双抗转基因烟草,成为世界上首个批准转基因作物商业化种植的国家。
1994. Calgene attained approval to commercially release the Flavr Savr tomato, a tomato engineered to have a longer shelf life.
1994年,美国Calgene公司获得许可在美国生产和销售耐贮藏的转基因西红柿Flavr Savr。
1994. The European Union approved tobacco engineered to be resistant to the herbicide bromoxynil, making it the first genetically engineered crop commercialized in Europe.
1994年,欧盟批准抗除草剂bromoxynil转基因烟草在欧洲的种植,抗除草剂bromoxynil的转基因烟草成为在欧洲商业化种植的第一个转基因作物。
1995. Bt Potato was approved safe by the Environmental Protection Agency, making it the first pesticide producing crop to be approved in the USA.
1995年,美国环保局核准了Bt转基因马铃薯的安全,使其成为第一个在美国获准的产生杀虫剂的转基因作物。
2009. China approved the field test of transgenic BT rice and phytase transgenic corn.
2009年,中国给两种转基因抗虫水稻和一种转植酸酶基因玉米颁发了安全证书。
2010. Scientists at the J. Craig Venter Institute created the first synthetic bacterial genome, named Synthia, the world's first synthetic life form.
2010年,J. Craig Venter研究所成功获得世界上第一个人工合成的细菌基因组,Synthia.

     

在功能基因组研究的基础上,现在可以通过基因工程的方法获得任何颜色的花,比如蓝色的玫瑰。
Based on functional genomics study, it is now possible to generate flowers of any color by genetic engineering, such as blue roses.

农产品国际贸易空前活跃,并逐步向区域化和集团化迈进

农产品的贸易与经济发展同步。从世界范围看,1960~1989年的30年中,发达国家农产品出口值与进口值分别增长了5.91倍和4.82倍,而发展中国家则分别增长了4.52倍和8.5倍。特别是近年来由于亚洲国家经济发展迅速,其农产品贸易额由1985年的1 138.3亿美元猛增到1992年的2 150.1亿美元,增长了88.9%。
Synchronized development of agricultural trade and economic development. In 30 years from 1960 to 1989, the export and import of agricultural products in developed countries increased by 5.91 times and 4.82 times, respectively. In developing countries, the increases were 4.52 times and 8.5 times, respectively. In recent years, due to the rapid economic development of Asian countries, Asian agricultural products trade volume has jumped from $ 113.83 billion in 1985 to $ 215.01 billion in 1992, an increase of 88.9%.
农产品进口种类的变化。传统的大宗农产品(如谷物、食糖、棉花、烟草、原木等)贸易相对稳定,但随着食物消费结构的变化和人民生活水平的提高,畜禽产品(肉类、奶类、鸡蛋类)、水产品、各类水果、油脂、饮料、森工产品等则有明显的增长。
Changes in importation of agricultural products. Traditional trading of bulk agricultural products such as cereals, sugar, cotton, tobacco, and timber, etc. is still relatively stable, but with changes in the structure of food consumption and improvement of people's living standards, trading of livestock products (meat, milk, and eggs), aquatic products, fruits, oils, beverages, and forest products have gained significant growth.
国际农产品贸易竞争加剧,市场结构向发达国家倾斜。80年代前半期,由于世界性的经济危机与衰退,导致进口需求下降和世界农产品贸易增长速度放慢。主要表现在民办农产品市场供过于求,价格下跌,农产品库存量增加,致使各国争夺世界农产品市场份额的竞争进一步加剧。
Increased competition in international agricultural trade and shifting of agricultural market to developed countries. In the first half of 1980s, worldwide economic crisis and recession have led to decline in demand for imports and slowdown in growth of agricultural products. Local agricultural market was oversupplied and prices of agricultural products were falling, increased agricultural products inventory caused intensive competition among many countries to compete for a share of world agricultural markets.
国际农产品贸易区域化、集团化趋势日益明显。由于国际农产品贸易保护主义日甚一日,农产品自由贸易受到严重阻碍,国际农产品市场的要素配置机制作用不能得到很好的发挥,许多国家为了寻求较大范围内的贸易保护措施。
Regionalization of international agricultural trade and conglomeration of agricultural industry. Due to intensified international trade protectionism, free trading of agricultural products has been seriously hampered. The international agricultural market allocation mechanism could not function well, and many countries have started to seek a wider range of trade protection measures.
跨国农业公司在农产品贸易中的作用越来越大。跨国农业公司兴起于19世纪后期,当时着重进行土地开发和经营。自第二次世界大战后到60年代末期,跨国农业公司把重点放在经营农产品加工和贸易上,并以“合同收购”方式牢牢控制货源,形成强有力的“生产、加工、供销”一体化的公司体制。同时,还利用其在资本和加工技术方面的优势和对世界农情、商情的掌握和判断能力以及利用各国经济法规的某些差异的漏洞,大力向国外推进。
The growing role of multinational agricultural companies in the agricultural trade. Multinational agricultural companies began to form in the late 1900s. The original ones focused on land development and management. From after the Second World War to late 1960s, multinational agricultural companies shifted their focus to processing and trading of agricultural products. They had tight control of trade supplies through contract acquisition and formed strong production, processing, and supply chains within the same company. They have made aggressive advancing into foreign markets using its advantages in capital reserve, products processing technology, grasping and prediction of world agricultural trade situations, as well as finding loopholes in some country’s trade regulation laws.

2009年

在Science、nature上关于基因组研究
的文章约20~30篇;结构基因组序列不
断被揭示,基因的功能正在成为全球基
础生物学研究的热点和重点领域。

1980年代早期/ Early 1980s

在发达国家,农民开始使用电脑来维持农业信息:监测作物的价格和天气条件、帮助决定何时灌溉和植物和自动化使用化肥和农药。
In developed countries, farmers began using computers to keep farm accounts; to monitor crop prices and weather conditions; to help decide when to irrigate and plant; and to automate the application of fertilizers and pesticides.

1970年代/ 1970s

研究人员首先在加利福尼亚州实现了将一个基因从一个物种到另一个的拼接,标志着基因工程时代的开始。遗传基因工程技术可应用于植物和动物的耐寒、抗病性、以及高产性能的培育。
Researchers in California first spliced a gene from one organism into another, and the age of genetic engineering began. Genetic engineering offers the possibility of making plants and animals hardier, more resistant to disease, and more productive.

Introduction of gene splicing
基因剪切

当代高新技术成果开始在农业中得到应用
Application of modern high-tech achievements in Agriculture

生物工程与基本工程。运用遗传育种等生物工程技术培育作物高产品种,是现代农业中的一项重大革命。早在本世纪20年代,美国就已育成玉米杂交种,但直到40年代才推广。60年代中期在亚、非、拉美各国兴起的“绿色革命”,就是以利用遗传育种技术培育和推广高产、优质、多抗的作物品种为中心,并同完善水肥设施条件、耕作制度改变,以及推广科学的经营管理相结合,形成一整套先进的农业技术系统。
Bio-engineering and foundation engineering. The use of genetic breeding, bio-engineering techniques to breed high-yielding crops is a major revolution in modern agriculture. Back in the 1920s, the United States had made hybrid corn variety, but it was not widely planted until 1940s. The "green revolution" in the mid-1960s in Asia, Africa and Latin American countries, was centered on promoting the use of high-yield, high-quality, and multi-resistance crops generated by genetic breeding. It produced a complete set of advanced agricultural technology system by also combining perfection of fertilizer application and irrigation facilities, change of farming systems, and scientific management of agricultural production.
新材料技术。包括功能材料、复合材料、聚合物材料及特种陶瓷等,其中以矣合物材料与农产品原料生产关系最密切。如合成橡胶、塑料、合成纤维等聚合物材料的使用,可减轻对农产品原料需求的压力。此外,具有特殊光、电、磁、热性能的功能材料今后在农业上也有广泛的应用前景。
New material technology. New materials include functional materials, composite materials, polymeric materials and special ceramics. The use of polymeric materials such as synthetic rubber, plastics, and synthetic fibers, has relieved the pressure on the demand for agricultural raw materials. In addition, materials with special optical, electrical, magnetic, and thermal properties also have prospects for broad application in agriculture.
生物能源技术。系农业部门开发的生物能源。如70年代后期出现的种植能源林,选择速生的能源树种,甚至开发能源林场,生产的薪材林主要用作民用燃料。此外,还可种植能撮能源原料的农作物。如当今从甘蔗、玉米中提炼取得的酒精已用于工业生产,可部分地取代汽油。如巴甘蔗产量的一半用于生产酒精,每吨甘蔗干物质可制造酒精8.2吨。又如,利用植物秸秆、牲畜粪便、海藻及污水产生的沼气,已成为中国、印度等发展中国家一些农村的重要民用能源。
Bio-energy technologies. Bio-energy is produced from agricultural products. In late 1970s, people have been planting trees, selecting fast-growing tree species, and developing forest farms for bio-energy production.  The produced bio fuels were mainly used for domestic fuel consumption. Crops have also been planted to produce bio fuels. Today, alcohol refined from sugar cane and corn has been used in industrial production, and partially relieved the dependence on gasoline fuels. In Brazil, half of its national sugar cane production was used for production of ethanol, and 8.2 tons of ethanol can be produced from each ton of dry sugarcane materials. In some rural areas in developing countries such as China and India, methane gas produced from crop straws, livestock manure, seaweed and sewage water has become an important energy source
海洋开发技术。在海洋开发方面已崭露头角的高新技术有:开采海底石油、海水养殖、海水淡化、从海水中提法取钾、镁等元素,海洋发电、潜水和水下作业技术等。海水养殖业有可能将海洋变为人类未来食物的重要生产场所。此外,海水发电将使农业有充足的电力,海水淡化不仅可用于工业,也可用于农灌溉。
Ocean development technology. New emerging high-tech in ocean development include offshore drilling, seawater aquaculture, seawater desalination, production of potassium and magnesium from seawater, marine electricity generation, and other underwater operations. The ocean aquaculture industry has the potential to become a major food source for humans in the future. Electricity generated by sea water can provide adequate power for agricultural production, fresh water produced by seawater desalination can be used for both industrial production and agricultural irrigation.
信息技术。其中微电子技术已经成熟。微型电子计算机可以应用于农业中的许多方面,包括会计和财务分析,农牧业生产管理与自动化生产,计算机网络信息管理,建立农业数据库系统、专家系统,进行系统模拟、适时处理与控制和数字图像处理等。
Information technology. Microelectronic technology has matured considerably in the past few decades. Microcomputers can be applied to many aspects of agriculture, including accounting and financial analysis, management and automation of the production of agricultural and livestock goods, management of computer networks, establishment of agricultural databases, system simulation, real-time control, and digital image processing.
空间技术。空间技术与农业关系密切,如通讯卫星、气象卫星可提高气象观测水平,更好地为农业服务。遥感可用于土壤调查与土地资源清查及其制图、作物估产、植物识别、自然灾害调查、土壤湿度与农业环境污染等方面。遥测可对农作物、森林和渔场进行观察监视,预报产量,预报鱼群洄游路线以及森林防火等。预计在未来还将出现在航天飞行器里栽培植物的“宇宙农业”。
Space Technology. Space technology can be applied in many aspects of agriculture. Communications satellites and meteorological satellites can be used to monitor and forecast weather conditions for agricultural production. Remote sensing can be used for land survey, land resource inventory, land mapping, crop yield assessment, plant identification, investigation of natural disasters, soil moisture survey and environmental pollution survey. Satellites can also be used to observe and monitor farms, forests and fisheries for yield forecasting, prediction of fish migration routes, and prevention of forest fires. In the future, “Space Agriculture” may also emerge by cultivating plants in spaceships.
 

 

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