农业发展历史文化墙

一系列亟待解决的问题
发表时间:2013-11-28 阅读次数:2021次

一系列亟待解决的问题
A series of problems to be solved

农业发展速度下降   Slowing down of Agricultural development 导致世界范围农业发展速度下降的原因,一是自然灾害频繁,包括大范围的旱、涝及虫灾。二是农业投资不足。三是农业价格政策不合理。农业生产资料价格上涨过快,工农业产品价格剪刀差不断扩大,严重挫伤了农民的生产积极性。
 There are several causes of slowing down of worldwide agricultural development. Firstly it was caused by frequent natural disasters, including a wide range of drought, floods and insect infestations. Secondly, it was due to the lack of investment in agriculture. Thirdly, it was caused by unreasonable price policies in agricultural trade. The fast rising of cost for the raw materials in agricultural production and “price scissors” between industrial and agricultural products had seriously dampened the farmers' enthusiasm for agricultural production.
发达国家和发展中国家农业发展的不平衡性加剧  Increasing imbalance in agricultural development between the developed and developing countries. 占世界总人口32.2%、总耕地面积47.85的发达国家已经实现了农业现代化,它们的农产品出现了过剩;而占世界总人口76.8%、总耕地面积52.2%的发展中国家则不但没有实现现代化,而且在一定的区域内(如非洲)还存在着农产品的严重短缺,难以满足这些国家人口日益增长的消费需求。
 The developed countries consist 32.2% of the world population and occupy 47.85% of the world arable land. They have finished agricultural modernization and have surplus of agricultural products. In the meantime, 76.8% of the world population and 52.2% of the world arable land are in developing countries. Not only have the developing countries not finished agricultural modernization, but in some regions, such as Africa, there is still serious shortage of agricultural products, making it difficult to meet the demand for food by people in these regions.
人口增长过快,对粮食等农产品需求压力日益增加 ?Rapid growth of world population has put pressure on increasing food production and other agricultural products
据联合国及世界银行预测,到2000年世界总人口将达到62.5亿,2025年将达到84.7亿,2055年达93.2亿。
According to predictions by the United Nations and the World Bank, the total world population will reach 8.47 billion in 2025, and 93.2 billion in 2055.
农业资源缺乏,农业生态环境日益恶化Lack of agricultural resources and deterioration of ecological environment for agriculture 今后耕地面积的扩大既受到后备资源的限制,又受到资金、劳动力、居住环境条件等因素的制约,而且大部分宜农荒地现在已经是牧地和林地,大规模开垦往往伴随着水土流失、沙漠化等生态环境问题出现。另一方面,由于其时空分布极不平衡,估计世界约有半数以上的人口面临缺水的威胁。此外,山地丘陵区的水土流失,干旱区的沙漠化,森林减少,草原退化以及日益严重的农业环境污染(尤其是水污染)等等,都是困扰当前世界农业持续发展的重大问题。
Future expansion of farmlands is restricted by both limited resources and constraints in capital, labor, environmental conditions and many other factors. Majority of the uncultivated lands that are suitable for agriculture have been used for pasture and forest industry, and large-scale land cultivation is usually accompanied by environmental problems such as soil erosion and desertification. On the other hand, because of the extremely uneven spatial and temporal distribution of the world population, it is estimated that more than half of the people in the world will face the threat of water shortage. The problems of ??soil erosion in mountain areas, desertification of arid land, deforestation, grassland degradation and growing environmental pollutions (especially water pollution) by agriculture, have been major issues that are threatening the sustainable growth of the world agricultural development.
总之,人类在过去一万年来的农耕史,就是人类开拓自然资源和控制、改造、保护自然资源的历史。在漫长的农业实践中,人类陆续开拓了农、林、牧、渔各业,培育了近百种动植物,并积累了大量改造利用不利的自然条件以及一整套用地与养地相结合的经验。随着科学技术的发展,未来农业不仅会保护和强化利用现有农业资源,而且会开拓并合理利用新的资源,逐渐建立起既能满足人类自身持续生存需要,又能合理、永续地利用自然资源,并同保护和改善农业生态环境相结合的持续农业。
In summary, the history of agriculture in the past 10,000 years was a history of human beings to control, develop and preserve natural resources. In the long history of agricultural development, human beings developed the agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery industries, domesticated nearly 100 species of plants and animals, accumulated a lot of experiences in dealing with unfavorable natural conditions and cultivating and restoring farmlands. With the development of science and technology, the future development of agriculture will not only protect and strengthen the use of existing agricultural resources, but also explore the utilization of new resources. To meet the need for sustainable growth of human society, we need to develop an agriculture that can maintain rational and sustainable use of natural resources, as well as protection and improvement of the agro-ecological environment.
 

2011年9月18日

2011年9月18日,农业部专家组在湖南省隆回县验收超级稻大面积亩产的初步结果发布,
“杂交水稻之父”袁隆平院士指导的超级稻第三期目标亩产900公斤高产攻关获得成功,
创造了杂交稻世界新纪录。

 

 

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