农业发展历史文化墙

近代农业时期
发表时间:2013-11-28 阅读次数:2113次

近代农业时期(19世纪中叶至第二次世界大战)
Pre-modern Agriculture period (mid-19th century to World War II)

近代农业是传统农业向现代农业发展的一个过渡阶段。这是人类社会由农业社会踏进工业社会的一个阶段,世界经济的各个领域(包括农业领域)都发生了激烈的变革,既有突出的成就,也出现了尖锐的矛盾。
Pre-modern Agriculture was a transitional stage in the development of Traditional Agriculture into Modern Agriculture. This was a stage when the world evolved from agricultural societies to industrial societies. Radical changes happened in every sector of the world economy (including the agricultural sector), with both prominent economic achievements and serious conflicts.
公元16~18世纪,是欧洲各国封建制度瓦解、资本主义工场手工业大发展和资本原始积累时期,也就是从封建主义向资本主义过渡时期。地理大发现后,随着世界市场的扩大,刺激了欧洲大陆和英国毛纺织工业的发展,使养羊业成为非常赢利的部门,由于欧洲各国都从英国进口羊毛,推动了英国养羊业的发展。为了确保养羊业的高额利润,引发了18世纪的“圈地运动”。
During the 16th to 18th century, the European feudal system collapsed, and the transition from feudalism to capitalism started. It was a period of big development of the capitalist handicraft industry and period of primitive accumulation of capital. The discovery of new lands and expansion of the world market stimulated the development of European and British wool textile industry, making the sheep industry a very profitable sector. The British sheep industry developed rapidly since all European countries imported wool from Britain. The efforts to ensure the high profit margin of the sheep industry triggered the Enclosure movement of the 18th century.
随着资本主义制度的确立,产业革命在各国相继开展,世界经济得到迅速发展,有力地推动了近代农业的发展和农业技术的变革。
With the establishment of capitalist system, industrial revolution took place in many countries gradually. The rapid development of world economy became a strong impetus to the development of agriculture and agricultural technology.
从19世纪中叶到第二次世界大战的近100年间,由于经历了1873年以及20世纪20年代末至30年代初的几次大的世界经济危机,加上受两次世界大战的破坏,给农业生产带来了极为严重的影响,西欧各国农业出现停滞、萎缩和衰退。从世界范围看,由于资本主义工业、交通运输业和国际贸易的发展,以及城市人口的迅速增长,推动了世界农业生产的发展,特别是19世纪初、中叶以来,由于美国、加拿大、阿根廷、澳大利亚等新开发地区农业的崛起,世界农业仍保持缓慢增长的势头。
In nearly 100 years from mid-1800s to the Second World War, after several major world economic crisis in 1873 and from late 1920s to early 1930s, coupled with destructions of the two world wars, world agricultural production were severely impaired. Agriculture in Western European countries were brought to serious stagnation, shrinkage and recessions. In global perspective, because of the development of capitalist industries, transportation, international trade, and the rapid growth of urban population, the world agricultural production was enhanced. Especially in the early and middle of the 19th century, with the increasing of agriculture production in the United States, Canada, Argentina, Australia and other newly developed areas, the world agriculture development continued in a slow momentum.

       

孟德尔Gregor Johann Mendel (July 20, 1822[1] - January 6, 1884), 1822年7月20日出生于奥地利西里西亚,是遗传学的奠基人,被誉为现代遗传学之父。孟德尔通过豌豆实验,发现了遗传规律、分离规律及自由组合规律。孟德尔的分离规律和自由组合规律是遗传学中最基本、最重要的规律,后来发现的许多遗传学规律都是在它们的基础上产生并建立起来的,它犹如一盏明灯,照亮了近代遗传学发展的前途。
Gregor Johann Mendel, (July 20, 1822 - January 6, 1884), born on July 20, 1822 in Austrian Silesia, is the father of modern genetics. Mendel discovered genetic laws through experiments with peas. The laws of Mendelian Inheritance, including the Law of Segregation and the Law of Independent Assortment and found that the genetic law, are the most fundamental and most important laws genetics. Many other genetic laws that were discovered later were based on the laws of Mendelian Inheritance. It is a beacon that lightens up the path for future development of modern genetics.

1869年

   弗里德里希.米歇尔

1869年,瑞士物理学和生物学家弗里德里希.米歇尔鉴定出核蛋白质,即核酸,为识别DNA是遗传物质的载体开辟了道路。
Friedrich Miescher (1844-1895, Swiss physician and biologist) 1869. Friedrich Miescher identified Nuclein, the material now known as nucleic acid, from pus cells (脓细胞) collected from a hospital bandage cloths, paving the way for the identification of DNA as the carrier of inheritance.

1890年

1890年代早期/ Early 1890s 建造了第一辆以汽油为动力的拖拉机。在世界的许多地方,他们逐渐取代蒸汽动力的拖拉机和耕畜。
The first gasoline-powered tractors were built. They gradually replaced steam-powered tractors and draft animals in many parts of the world.


(1869-1920)年

农业生产专业化和地域分工是资本主义农业的重要特征之一。它是在资本主义经济高度发达,具备运用大机器装备农业,以及交通运输业取得迅速发展的条件下形成和发展的。它有利于充分利用有的自然条件和社会经济条件,大力挖掘生产潜力,从而以得较高的劳动生产率和经济效益,因而是世界农业发展的总趋向。
 

美国、加拿大、阿根廷、澳大利亚和新西兰等新开垦区农业生产专业化发展较快,成为世界主要的粮食、棉花、油料及畜产品的生产和供应地。

Specialization of agricultural production and geographical division of labor is an important feature of capitalist agriculture. It was formed and developed based on highly developed capitalist economy, using of large agricultural machinery and equipment, and fast improving transportation system. It is the overall trend of the world agricultural development because it can take full advantage of available natural resources and current social and economic conditions, greatly stimulate the production potential, and help to achieve higher labor and economic efficiencies.

The rapid development of agricultural production in newly developed areas in the United States, Canada, Argentina, Australia and New Zealand made them the world's major producers and suppliers of grain, cotton, oil-bearing crops and livestock.

1920年代/1920s

在许多国家,更好的营养,疾病控制措施以及育种实践极大地提高了畜牧业生产。
Better nutrition, disease control measures, and breeding practices greatly improved livestock production in many countries.

畜牧业生产能力的提高
Improvements in livestock production

1890年代/ 1890s

联合收割机在加利福尼亚州被广泛使用。它逐渐在其他西方国家被应用,这使得收获一公顷的小麦需要的劳动力从37降至6.25人。
The combine harvester, which combined the cutting and threshing of grain crops, came into widespread use in California. It gradually spread to other western states. The combine reduced the amount of labor needed to harvest one hectare of wheat from 37 to 6.25 man-hours.

1920年代晚期/Late 1920s 科学家们改良了农民种植玉米种子的质量。这种杂交种合并了几个种种子的最佳品质。肥料的使用帮助农民提高了单株的产量。
Scientists improved the seeds from which farmers grew corn. The best qualities of several kinds of seeds were combined. Fertilizers helpted farmers produce more from each plant.

玉米种子生产能力的提高
Improvements in seed corn

1866年

孟德尔的遗传研究结果在奥地利发表。他的工作铺平了道路,通过基因改良作物的。
The results of Gregor Mendel's studies in heredity were published in Austria. In experiments with pea plants, Mendel learned how traits were passed from one generation to the next. His work paved the way for improving crops through genetics.

1842年

在英国,约翰·班纳特劳斯爵士创办了第一家工厂,生产过磷酸钙。这标志着化肥行业的。
In England, Sir John Bennet Lawes founded the first factory to manufacture superphosphate. This marked the beginning of the chemical fertilizer industry.

第一家生产过磷酸钙工厂成立
Founding of  the first superphosphate factory

     

查尔斯·罗伯特·达尔文(Charles Robert Darwin , 12 February 1809 - 19 April 1882) ,英国生物学家,进化论的奠基人。曾乘贝格尔号舰作了历时5 年的环球航行,对动植物和地质结构等进行了大量的观察和采集。出版《物种起源》这一划时代的著作,提出了生物进化论学说,从而摧毁了各种唯心的神造论和物种不变论。除了生物学外,他的理论对人类学、心理学及哲学的发展都有不容忽视的影响。恩格斯将“进化论”列为19世纪自然科学的三大发现之一。
Darwin published his theory with compelling evidence for evolution in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species.

 

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