农业发展历史文化墙

现代农业时期
发表时间:2013-11-28 阅读次数:1955次

现代农业时期(1945年至今)
Modern agricultural era (1945-present)

现代农业是有工业技术装备、以实验科学为指导、主要从事商品生产的农业。由于技术发展水平的差异,它在西方又经历过近代和现代两个时期。
Modern Agriculture is supported by industrial technology and machinery, guided by experimental sciences, and focused on production of agricultural goods. Due to the different levels of technological development, it went through two periods of development in the West---the Early Modern and Modern Agriculture.
严格意义上的现代农业阶段,是在20世纪初采用了动力机械和人工合成化肥以后开始的,到20世纪中期,一些工业发达国家都已先后完成这一转变。它着重依靠的是机械、化肥、农药和水利灌溉等技术,是由工业部门提供大量物质和能源的农业。由于现代农业劳动生产率的提高,农业人口逐年减少,但投放在单位面积上的能量则逐年增加。在有的国家,其投入量甚至已经大于所生产食物包含的能量;同时对环境的污染也日益加重,这已成为现代农业面临的迫切问题之一。
In its strictest definition, the beginning of modern agriculture was in the early 20th century when powered machinery and synthetic fertilizers were utilized. By the mid-20th century, a number of developed countries had completed this transition. Modern Agriculture consumes large amount of materials and energy that were produced by the industrial sector, and heavily relied on machinery, fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation technology. Labor forces in agricultural sector decreased annually with improvement of labor efficiency. In some countries, the investment in agricultural production has been greater than the energy produced in these products, and environmental pollution  caused by Modern Agriculture also became more and more severe. This has become one of the urgent problems in the development of modern agriculture.
以农业机械化、化学化、水利化和电气化为主体的农业“四化”得到了迅速的发展与提高,农业生产条件有了很大的改善,对确保农业的持续稳定发展、农作物单产和总产以及农业劳动生产率的提高起到了重要的作用。
The rapid development of "four modernizations" in agriculture, modernization of agricultural machinery, modernization of agricultural chemicals, modernization of agricultural irrigation systems, and modernization of agricultural electrification, has greatly improved the working conditions for agricultural production. It played important roles in ensuring sustained and stable development of agriculture, increasing unit and gross crop yield, and increasing labor efficiency in agricultural production.
战后,世界农业机械化取得巨大发展,除美国已于1940年基本实现农业机械化外,英、德、法、加、荷、苏等国相继于50年代初~50年代中期,意、日于60年代初~60年代中期基本实现了农业机械化。在实现农业机械化的过程中,一般首先从田间作业耕翻、播种、收等环节开始,从谷物生产逐步发展到经济作物、果树、蔬菜、饲料作物及畜牧业等方面。但由于各国的自然和社会经济条件不同,农业机械化的途径和重点也不相同。
After World War II, there have been great developments in world agricultural mechanization. After the United States finished agricultural mechanization in 1940, Britain, Germany, France, Canada, the Netherlands, and the Soviet Union followed in succession in the early 1950s to the mid-1950s. Italy and Japan finished agricultural mechanization in early to mid-1960s. In the process of agricultural mechanization, it usually starts from the field works such as plowing, sowing, harvesting, and gradually develops from grain production into cash crops, fruit trees, vegetables, fodder crops and animal husbandry. However, due to the different natural, social and economic conditions of each country, the path to agricultural mechanization and the focus are not always the same.
农业机械化有力地促进了农业劳动生产率的提高,对提高土地生产率、调整农村产业结构(农业劳动力向第二、三产业转移)也有重要作用。
Agricultural mechanization has effectively improved labor efficiency, increased productivity of farmland, and changed labor force structure in rural areas (more agricultural labor force is moving into the secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy).
战后农业化学化的范围随科技的发展而有所扩展,不仅包括使用化肥和农药,还包括运用饲料添加剂、土壤改良剂及推广农用塑料等。其中化肥和农药仍是其核心。近年来,世界各国都十分重视改进化肥的品种和质量,如生产复合肥料、浓缩肥料、液体肥料和缓解肥料等。
Postwar modernization of agricultural chemicals developed with the development of science and technology. It has been expanded to include not only the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, but also use of feed additives, soil conditioners, and agricultural plastics. However, fertilizers and pesticides are still at the core of agricultural chemical development. In recent years, many countries have put great efforts into developing new variety and high quality fertilizers, such as compound fertilizers, concentrated fertilizers, liquid fertilizers and slow releasing fertilizers.
由于上述“四化”的发展以使用石油为特征,如农业机械的运转、农田排灌、化肥生产的原料、发电所需的燃料多离不开石油及其制品,因而又可称为“石油农业”,它有力地促进了农产品产出率和农业劳动生产率的大幅度提高。
The "four modernizations" of agriculture are characterized by its consumption of oil fuels. The operation of agricultural machinery, agricultural irrigation, fertilizer production, and electricity generation depend on oil fuels and oil related products. So the modern agriculture is also called "oil-agriculture ", which effectively advanced the rate of agricultural output and labor efficiency.

Distinguished plant breeder and Nobel Laureate
Norman Borlaug 1914-2009
著名植物育种学家和诺贝尔奖获得者
诺曼.博洛格博士


1914-2009

因为肥料的大量使用和半矮杆谷物的培育成功,20世纪60年代的绿色革命极大地促进了粮食产量的增加。
Tremendous increases in crop yields (the Green Revolution) during the 20th century occurred because of increased use of fertilizer and the introduction of semidwarf varieties of grains.
半矮杆谷物把更多的能量从茎秆的生长转移到种子生长,而且谷物也因为茎秆的缩短而变得更强壮和抗倒伏。
The semidwarf varieties put more energy into seed production than stem growth, and are sturdier and less likely to fall over.

1950-1960年代间/ 1950S-1960S

一些发展中国家,如印度和菲律宾,经历了绿色革命。相继有高产粮食育成,大大提高了产量和当地供应。
Several developing countries, such as India and the Philippines, experienced the green revolution. High-yield grains were introduced, greatly increasing production and local supplies.

     

                                 The DNA double helix.
                            DNA 双螺旋

1953年,詹姆斯·沃森(美国遗传学家和分子生物学家)和弗朗西斯·克里克(英国分子生物学家)提出了DNA的3-D结构-双螺旋结构。英籍新西兰人莫里斯.威尔金斯提供了X-射线衍射数据。
他们三人一起获得1962年诺贝尔生理或医学奖。

James Watson (1928-, American molecular biologist, geneticist, and zoologist, left); Francis Crick (1916-2004, an English molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, right)

In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick proposed a 3-D model of DNA--a double helix. Together with Maurice Wilkins (1916-2004, New Zealand-born English physicist and molecular biologist), who provided x-ray diffraction data of DNA double helix, the three were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962.

1945-1970年间/ 1945-About 1970

的粮食比以往任何时候都多。
Machines and increased productivity in industrialized countries sharply reduced the number of people working in agriculture. Through scientific advances and improved management techniques, farmers produced more food than ever before.

1939年

DDT的生产标志着在发展中国家农业大量使用化学农药。因为它是破坏生态环境,美国在1972年禁止使用DDT。
DDT was introduced, marking the beginning of agriculture's heavy use of chemical pesticides in developing countries. The U.S. banned DDT in 1972 because it was harming the environment.

Introduction of DTT
使用DTT

农产品贸易的迅速发展 19世纪以来,随着世界范围农业生产专门化和地域分工的发展,以及铁路和海运等运量大、运费较低的运输工具迅速发展,不仅世界农产品贸易的品种、数量有了很大的增长,而且其贸易地区也不断扩大。在19世纪中叶,世界农产品贸易的绝对量估计为400~450万吨,其中谷物占80%以上,次为棉花、羊毛、畜产品和热带、南亚热带种植园生产的蔗粮、咖啡、可可、茶叶等,主要流向为欧洲各国。
Since the 19th century, the varieties and amount of the world trade of agricultural products underwent rapid development, helped by specialization and geographical division of agricultural production worldwide, as well as development of high capacity and low cost rail and maritime transportations. In the mid-1900s, the gross amount of the world trade in agricultural products was estimated to be 4 to 4.5 million tons, and 80% of them were grains, followed by cotton, wool, animal products and tropical, subtropical plantation products of sugarcane, coffee, cocoa, tea, etc., mostly imported by European countries.
19世纪中叶以来,由于西欧大部分国家农业衰退,粮食生产萎缩,加之工业的迅速发展和城市化的兴起(如1911年英国城市人口占总人口的80%)对谷物和肉、乳、毛等畜产品的需求量成倍增长。整个欧洲地区除法国和俄国等少数国家外,肉类和乳酪都不同程度地依赖国外进口。
Since the mid-1900s, most countries in Western Europe went through recessions in agricultural production. The decrease of food production, combining with the rapid development of industry and urbanization (80% of Britain’s population was in urban areas in 1911), generated high demand for cereals and livestock products such as meat, milk, and wool. Except for a few countries such as France and Russia, meat and cheese supplies were heavily dependent on foreign imports in varying degrees in Europe.
在经济作物产品贸易中,除棉花继续占据首位外,甜菜由于19世纪初引入欧洲后,在法国、德国及俄国大量种植,因而蔗糖进口量有所减少。热带经济作物中,随着汽车工业的发展和人口激增、橡胶、咖啡、茶叶、可可、油棕及水果的贸易量有了较大的增长,这些农产品流向主要是:由东南亚、南亚、热带非洲和拉丁美洲的一些殖民地和半殖民地运往欧洲及北美。
Among trade for economic crop products, cotton continued to be the number one commodity. The importation of sugar decreased because sugarcane was introduced to Europe in early 1900s and widely planted in France, Germany and Russia. For tropical economic crops, the volume of trade in rubber, coffee, tea, cocoa, oil palm and fruit had large growth because of the development of automotive industry and rapid population growth. The flow of these agricultural products was mainly from colonials and semi-colonials in Southeast Asia, South Asia, tropical Africa and Latin America to Europe and North America.

Copyright © 2013 上海交大生物转基科普教育基地
地址:上海市闵行区剑川路501号 邮编:200240 电话:021-34204876/34207174 联系人:刘丹阳

技术支持:维程互联

您是第 dreamweaver widget位访客